Crossbreed vigor into the interpopulation crosses accompanied by a drop inside F

mei - 15

Crossbreed vigor into the interpopulation crosses accompanied by a drop inside F

Crossbreed vigor into the interpopulation crosses accompanied by a drop inside F

For Sh. cordifolia, trends observed among treatments for seed germination rate and seedling height suggest hybrid vigor or luxuriance in progeny derived from between-forest crosses. This finding is tentative, however, due to the small sample sizes involved with the between-forest crosses for the seed germination and later stages. Hybrid vigor in F1 progeny is consistent with the model for outbreeding depression through the disruption of coadapted gene complexes. According to this model, F1 hybrid vigor results from increased heterozygosity, with subsequent hybrid breakdown in the Fdos generation from the disruption of parental genomes during F1 gametogenesis (Templeton, 1986). It remains to be seen whether hybrid vigor can occur at some level of genetic differentiation between mates without subsequent F2 breakdown (Shields, 1982). 2 fitness has been reported for several herbaceous species (e.g., Clausen, 1951; Kruckeberg, 1957; Vickery, 1959; Grant and Grant, 1960; Gottlieb, 1971; Grant, 1971; Hughes and Vickery, 1974; Price and Waser, 1979). In woody angiosperms, hybrid vigor in interpopulation crosses has been documented for at least one species, Syzygium cormiflorum, a subcanopy species of Australia’s rainforests (Crome and Irvine, 1986). Unfortunately, due to the long generation times of trees, study of F2 generations in these species is usually not feasible.

Timing off inbreeding and you can outbreeding depression

Evidence of inbreeding and you will outbreeding outcomes diminished between the levels regarding fruits put and you will step one-yr-old seedlings. That it finding was tentative, yet not, as the capability to position crossing outcomes together with elizabeth period. In their report on brand new timing out-of inbreeding anxiety inside flowers, Partner and you can Schemske (1996) determined that having outcrossing variety, inbreeding despair try greatest into the degree away from seeds put and you can growth and you can breeding, and much smaller very important to seed products germination. Result of this study try similar to the standard achievement one to embryo abortion is an important, if you don’t top, element of inbreeding depression into the outcrossing flowers (elizabeth.g., Levin, 1984, 1989).

Inside the constraints of one’s physical fitness steps used in this study, the results is actually consistent with the conclusions from McCall, Mitchell-Old, and Waller (1991) of optimum outcrossing when you look at the Impatiens capensis where in actuality the effectation of intermate point decreased amongst the stages off mature seeds and you may little ones intimate maturity

Little is well known of your own time out of outbreeding despair in the herbs. Both education go along with Spouse and you will Schemske’s (1996) consensus having inbreeding depression you to definitely crossing outcomes is actually most notable in the brand new stage regarding seeds put and less very during the level of seed products germination and you may early seedling gains (however, pick Waser and you can Speed, 1989). Reasonable inbreeding despair found in germination and emergency could well be due to your short time of, and you may couples family genes working in, these amount in line with new level off vegetables maturation and you will breeding (Husband and you may Schemske, 1996).

Viewed together, the newest ideas away from inbreeding and outbreeding depression assume that there will be exist some intermediate crossing range anywhere between mates at which both inbreeding and outbreeding anxiety are stopped (i.e., the “optimum outcrossing point” of Rates and Waser, 1979; and you can Waser and you may Speed, 1983). Maximum outcrossing relates to men and women crosses you to get to ideal reproductive exercise according to almost every other crosses and therefore laws optimal hereditary being compatible ranging from mates. Absolutely nothing known regarding optimum outcrossing in the woody species. Even when determining a finest outcrossing point was not a goal off this research, the outcomes imply that optimum outcrossing to have cover varieties during the tropical forest may occur more a range of roughly you to several kilometers. If you’re record pollen flow at that spatial level when you look at the carried on tree was extremely difficult, a handful of previous studies have presented at the very least low levels away from pure cross-pollinations over ranges of a single, or perhaps in some instances, several miles for the exotic woods (Nason, Herre, and you will Hamrick, 1996, 1998; Nason and Hamrick, 1997; Apsit, 1998; White, Powell, and you will Boshier, 1998). Outcrossing range by yourself, although not, doesn’t identify variation in the crossing achievement on the one or two analysis varieties. Equivalent outcrossing ranges yielded completely different leads to both species (high physical fitness in the ten km to possess Sh. cordifolia and extremely lowest exercise during the several kilometres to own S. rubicundum). As an alternative, for those trees, the vital determinant off crossing achievement over long distances appears to become no matter if friends occur for the exact same tree put aside.

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